Miller and Listhaug 1990 (†394)Miller, Arthur H., and Ola Listhaug. “Political Parties and Confidence in Government: A Comparison of Norway, Sweden and the United States.” British Journal of Political Science 20:3 (1 July 1990), p. 357–86.
- trust (358): [GOV] Support for the political system has generally been examined in terms of two different dimensions - political efficacy and trust in government. (ref in original) These two dimensions provide a description or theory of the relationship between the citizen and political authorities and institutions. As originally formulated, efficacy was concerned with an input function, 'the feeling that individual political action does have or can have an impact upon the political process'. (ref in original) Trust, by comparison, deals with an output function. It reflects evaluations of whether or not political authorities and institutions are performing in accordance with the normative expectations held by the public. Citizen expectations of how government should operate include, among other criteria, that it be fair, equitable, honest, efficient and responsive to society's needs. In brief, an expression of trust in government (or synonymously political confidence and support) is a summary judgement that the system is responsive and will do what is right even in the absence of constant scrutiny. (†430)