WHO/FAO 2009 (†534)Risk Characterization of Microbiological Hazards in Food (World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2009).
- qualitative risk assessment (p. 23): Qualitative risk assessments are commonly used for screening risks to determine whether they merit further investigation, and can be useful in the ‘preliminary risk management activities’, but may also provide the needed information and analysis to answer specific risk management questions. ¶ The major difference between qualitative and quantitative risk characterization approaches is in the manner in which the information is synthesized and the communication of the conclusions. (†861)
- qualitative risk assessment (p. 25): Risk assessment, at its simplest, is any method that assesses, or attempts to assess, a risk. Qualitative risk assessment is not, however, simply a literature review or description of all of the available information about a risk issue: it must also arrive at some conclusion about the probabilities of outcomes for a baseline risk and/or any reduction strategies that have been proposed. ¶ Qualitative risk assessments may be undertaken, for example, using the process of ‘expert elicitation’. Synthesizing the knowledge of experts and describing some uncertainties permits at least a ranking of relative risks, or separation into risk categories. [Citing FAO/WHO 2004)] (†863)
- risk assessment (p. 26): The main principles of a risk assessment apply equally anywhere along the qualitative to quantitative risk assessment continuum. These include identification of the hazard, defining the risk question, outlining the steps of the risk pathway, gathering data and information, including information on uncertainty and variability, combining the information in a logical manner, and ensuring all is fully referenced and transparent. It follows from this that many of the activities are the same, up to and including the gathering of the data. Therefore it is frequently the case that a Risk Profile, or qualitative (or semi-quantitative) risk assessment is undertaken initially, with the intention of following up with a quantitative risk assessment if it is subsequently thought to be necessary or useful, and feasible. (†864)