Wade, et al. 2010 (†639)Wade, Joshua B., Hiroshi Fujinoki, Adam Coffman, Delia M. Feerer, and Andrew G. Hauck. "A Cross-Layer Approach for Mitigating Denial of Service Attacks: Device-Driver Packet Filter and Remote Firewalling" International Journalof Communication Networks and Information Security 2:3 (December 2010), p.231-239.
- denial of service (p.231): Denial of service attacks are currently causing serious threats. Despite researchers' effort for many years, they ruin availability of various network services without an effective preventive solution. Many of the attacks are performed in a form of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. DDoS attacks are hard to prevent not only due to difficulty in nailing down the true origins of the attacks, but also due to a large number of seemingly unrelated hijacked hosts used in attacks, which makes distinction from surges in legitimate users difficult. (†1441)