Sheedy 2008 (†900)Sheedy, A, Mary Pat MacKinnon, Sonia Pitre, and Judy Watling. Handbook on Citizen Engagement: Beyond Consultation (Canadian Policy Research Networks, 2008).
- citizen engagement (p. 4): Citizen engagement values the right of citizens to have an informed say in the decisions that affect their lives. It emerged from the ideas of public participation, which is distinguished below from public communication and consultation. Both public participation and citizen engagement are different from traditional forms of interaction between governments and citizens because they are based on a two way interaction, conversation or dialogue. Citizen engagement emphasizes the sharing of power, information, and a mutual respect between government and citizens. (†2712)
- citizen engagement (p. 5): · Involves citizens (individuals, not representatives) in policy or program development, from agenda setting and planning to decision-making, implementation and review · Requires two way communication regarding policy or program change (interactive and iterative): between government and citizens; among citizens; and among citizens and civil society groups · Aims to share decision-making power and responsibility for those decisions · Includes forums and processes through which citizens come to an opinion which is informed and responsible · Generates innovative ideas and active participation · Contributes to collective problem solving and prioritization (deliberation) · Requires that information and process be transparent · Depends on mutual respect between all participants (†2713)