hash value [English]

Syndetic Relationships

InterPARES Definition

No definition in earlier IP projects. ITrust definition not yet developed.

Other Definitions

  • Franco 2014 (†793 p. 95): The output of the hash function that comes in the form of a bit-string of a specific length that permanently identifies the input data.
  • Seibold et al. 2016 (†821 p.18): An application programming interface creates, through a process called hashing, a unique key or digital fingerprint for each file.


  • ASTRI 2016 (†806 p.23): A DLT ledger contains a large number of blocks and a large amount of transaction data. Once the blocks and the transaction data have been stored in a ledger, these blocks and data are immutable, i.e. cannot be altered. At the macro level, the consensus process among validating nodes ensures that no malicious validating nodes can inject falsified transactions into a DLT network. At the micro level, hash technology is applied to detect any alteration made to the original data. This is a mathematical unidirectional function that summarises a piece of data, regardless of its size, as a piece of unique fixed-size short data called its “hash value”. Any alteration to the data causes its hash value to change also. Hence, instead of having to inspect every piece of information in the lengthy data record in order to detect data alterations, one only needs to run the hash function on the data record to obtain a hash value. If the hash value has changed, then one can conclude that the data record has been altered. · The strength of the hash function is that it is close to impossible for anyone to determine a hash value in advance, and then to create a data record that will in turn produce the pre-determined hash value. A minor change in the original data record will result in major changes in the hash value. There are different hash algorithms in the technology world. A common example is SHA256, which reduces a data string of any size to a 256-bit number... (†2059)
  • Buterin [2017] (†818 s.v. "Mining"): The network is intended to create one block approximately every ten minutes, with each block containing a timestamp, a nonce, a reference to (i.e., hash of) the previous block and a list of all of the transactions that have taken place since the previous block. (†2109)
  • Condos et al. 2016 (†819 p.7): Blockchain technology typically uses the encryption method known as cryptographic hashing.When a transaction is submitted, the contents of that transaction plus a few key pieces of metadata (including the timestamp and the parties involved) are encrypted using a mathematical algorithm. The output is known as a hash; a short digest of the data. (†2134)
  • Nakamoto 2008 (†804 p.2): We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership. (†2055)
  • Swan 2015 (†805 ): How it works is that a standard algorithm is run over a file (any file) to compress it into a short 64-character code (called a hash) that is unique to that document. No matter how large the file (e.g., a 9-GB genome file), it is compressed into a 64-character secure hash that cannot be computed backward. (†2056)
  • Wood 2014 (†803 p.2): Transactions are collated into blocks; blocks are chained together using a cryptographic hash as a means of reference. (†2070)